at the start he did clearly say that collecting toys causes overweight.
and i challenge you to back up your side with evidence the only bit of evidence that was put forward was about tests on monkeys.
what journal scientific or medical what doctor or scientist can prove a link to being overweight and toy collecting?
wheres your proof?
dont try and sugarcoat what the guy said he clearly made out collecting toys caused people to be overweight.
First, don't dismiss research on primates, as the brain makeup and behavioral patterns amongst humans and primates are very similar, which is why they are so widely used in research. (See Harry Harlow's research on attachment).
Second, I don't think James "clearly" said what you're implying he did.
People who fall victim to behavioral addictions have less dopamine receptors than people who don't. So it takes more rewards for a person like this to feel the same level of satiation as a normal person.
This also explains why so many action figure collectors are overweight. They are more susceptible to variable ratio reinforcement, shopping for thrills, and over-eating.
While James perhaps phrased his idea too conslusively: "This also explains
why so many action figure collectors are overweight," he clearly states that susceptibility to "variable ratio reinforcement" is what causes many action figure collectors to be overweight, not toy collecting itself. His points all hold their weight (no pun intended
). The main point both James and myself have been trying to make is that there is a relationship between spending addiction and overeating (not just toy collecting, but try to imagine a Venn diagram, toy collecting included in the same circle as overeating). Again, a relationship
is NOT a cause
. We're making an observation of similarities that, at times, go very much hand-in-hand. This doesn't mean, all toy collectors are overweight, because collecting toys is what causes them to be overweight.
They are not mutually exclusive to one another, and you keep speaking as though we are claiming they are. That's just silly, and neither James or myself have implied that, you're simply inferring it. Now, claiming that susceptibility to "variable ratio reinforcement" (people needing more of a thing to achieve the same satisfaction that others achieve with less) causes people to be overweight. Sure. That makes perfect sense. Might this reinforcement also affect a persons eating habits? SURE!! That makes sense too. And that's exactly what both James and I are saying. Houston... we have a relationship.
"Similarity of behavioural and chemical addictions
Syndromes of behavioural addictions share features with those of substance abuse which may point to overlapping pathophysiologies (Table 1). The syndromes are disorders of impulsive control and self-regulation.
They include obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), compulsive spending
(including gambling), overeating
(+/- bulimic binges), hyper-sexuality [whether straight (see Orford, 1978--compulsive promiscuity) or deviant (e.g. exhibitionism, paedophilia, fetishism)] kleptomania, and perhaps trichotillomania, tics and the Tourette syndrome, in which features (5) and (6) below may be lacking. The common aspects feature in the WHO definition of a dependence syndrome (Edwards, 1986):
(1) repeated urges to engage in a particular behavioural sequence that is counterproductive,
(2) mounting tension until the sequence is completed,
(3) rapid but temporary switching off of the tension by completing the sequence (a 'quick fix'),
(4) gradual return of the urge over hours, days of weeks,
(5) external cues for the urge unique to the particular addictive syndrome,
(6) secondary conditioning of the urge to both environmental and internal cues,
(7) similar strategies for relapse prevention: (a) training in impulse control by prolonged cue exposure in order to habituate cue-evoked craving and withdrawal and (b) stimulus control (environmental management)."
Marks, Isaac, Behavioural (non-chemical addictions, British Journal of Addiction
, Vol 85(11), NOV, 1990. pp. 1389-1394. United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing.
(Although the chart uses *bulimia* [BUL] as a column label, the article specifies *overeating (+/- bulimia)* (overeating with or without bulimic tendencies).
As you can see from the chart, chemical addictions, spending, and bulimia/overeating, share nearly all of the same *Addiction features* listed. Thus, the likelihood of chemical levels (including neurotransmitters such as dopamine) affecting spending and eating behaviors in unison, according to Marks' data chart, is greatly increased.
"Research has shown that many compulsive shoppers and spenders also suffer from depression and other mood disorders, substance abuse, or eating disorders
. As with any addiction, the person becomes dependent on the behavior to relieve negative feelings that cause them distress and discomfort."
Berger, Vincent, Understanding a spending and shopping addiction
. Psychologistanywhereanytime.com, 2005 (web).http://www.psychologistanywhereanytime.com/addiction_psychologist/psychologist_addiction_spending.htm
Yes, habitual overeating is classified in the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual) as an "eating disorder."
"Research (late 2008) from Vanderbilt finds that those individuals labeled as novelty seekers by psychologists, face an uphill battle due to the way their brains process dopamine. The research reveals that novelty seekers have less of a particular type of dopamine receptor, which may lead them to seek out novel and exciting experiences - such as spending lavishly
, taking risks and partying like there's no tomorrow." http://digitalnaturopath.com/cond/C69153.html
See Dopamine Regulation
"According to one study, cocaine, heroin, amphetamine, alcohol, and nicotine cause decreases in dopamine 2 receptor quantity. A similar association has been linked to food addiction, with a low availability of dopamine receptors present in people with greater food intake.
James's key points were (1) people who succumb to addiction have fewer dopamine receptors, (2) these people need to overcompensate to achieve normal levels of satisfaction, and (3) [acknowledging my post that many toy collectors overspend] James added that many toy collectors are overweight, making an observation that all of the above are related to one another.
See How Can You Become Addicted to Behavior
"There are chemical messengers known as neurotransmitters that carry communication from your brain to throughout
your body. When you’re anxious, nervous, or feeling worried (like when self-critical thoughts start creeping in), you
get a flood of panic-inducing epinephrine that can feel like pure jet fuel. When something happens that makes you
feel especially good (like when you buy something!), you get a rush of incredibly satisfying neurotransmitters called
serotonins that feels GREAT.
Spending addiction causes “I’ve got to buy something NOW” behavior. Each “cha-ching!” of the cash register or
credit card “Approved!” message makes you feel so good, you get enough of a chemical rush to drown in. One
purchase is never enough. You want to feel that exhilarating “high” again, and again, and again--and keep those
nagging, distressing feelings at arm's length. And so you go out and buy something.
You’ve become intoxicated by your own behavior. The only thing that feels important is to be able to continue
spending--because shopping for and acquiring new things makes you feel so good about yourself, about your life,
about everything! Just like the definition for addiction says, you have surrendered yourself to a behavior that’s
habitual, obsessive, and impairs your vital functioning."http://www.eap.partners.org/WorkLife/Addiction/Compulsive_Spending/What_is_Spending_Addiction.asp
So, what does this have to do with overeating and how does it link overspending to overeating, right? Well according to another article:
"Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is primarily found in the brain. Serotonin is also a neurotransmitter, but 80 to 90 percent of serotonin is found in the gastrointestinal tract." http://www.ehow.com/facts_5575149_dopamine-vs-serotonin.html
This demonstrates the influence neurotransmitters have on both eating and spending, and another validation of a link between the two.
Now, while James's ideas were said to be "nonsense" and "absurd," we can clearly see, that his argument (and mine) not only hold merit in their logic and reason, but are validated by several sources, including scientific journals and experts on the subject. (I could provide a few more, but it's getting late.
In research, they say you can never truly prove
anything, you can only disprove
them. You can only observe and record patterns and correlations, which are typically subject to argument and difference of opinion. Disproving is said to be possible because it is usually obvious when no pattern between one variable and another exists. Thus, "disproving" should be easier than "proving" anything. I've done the hard part, so I cordially open the floor for your disproval. I've shown you mine, now it's your turn to show me yours.
*Please note: I am not arguing for the sake of argument. Understanding human behavior (in others and ourselves) is central to understanding this problem which many people face, whether it involves out of control toy collecting or any other type of addictive spending. So, please, everyone, keep this in mind and let's keep it friendly!